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Packaging

Packaging

Print and Labeling

Alabel printeris a computer printerthat prints on self-adhesivelabelmaterial and/or card-stock(tags). A label printer with built-in keyboard and display for stand-alone use (not connected to a separate computer) is often called alabel maker. Label printers are different from ordinary printers because they need to have special feed mechanisms to handle rolled stock, or tear sheet (fanfold) stock. Common connectivity for label printers include RS-232serialUniversal Serial Bus(USB), parallelEthernetand various kinds of wireless.

Label printers have a wide variety of applications, including supply chain management,retailprice marking, packaginglabels, blood and laboratory specimen marking, andfixed assets management.

Mechanisms

Label printers use a wide range of label materials, including paper and synthetic polymer("plastic") materials. Several types of print mechanisms are also used, including laserand impact, but thermal printermechanisms are probably the most common. Two types of thermal printer are seen:

    • Direct Thermal - Uses heat sensitive paper (similar to thermal fax

    • Thermal Transfer - Uses heat to transfer ink from ribbon onto the label for a permanent print. Some thermal transfer printers are also capable of direct thermal printing. Using a PVC vinyl can increase the longevity of the label life as seen in pipe markers and industrial safety labels found in much of the market place today.

      There are three grades of ribbon for use with a thermal transfer printers:

    • Wax is the most popular with some smudge resistance, and is suitable for matte and semi-gloss paper labels.

    • Wax / Resin is smudge resistant, suitable for semi-gloss paper and some synthetic labels.

    • Resin is scratch and chemical resistant, suitable for coated synthetic labels.

When printing on continuous label stock, there is a tendency for the print location to shift slightly from label to label. To ensure registration of the print area with the target media, many label printers use a sensor that detects a gap, notch, line or perforation between labels. This allows the printer to adjust the intake of label stock so that the print aligns correctly with the media.

Types of  label printers

    • Desktop label printers are usually designed for light- to medium-duty use with a roll of stock up to 4" wide. They are quiet and inexpensive.

    • Commercial label printers can typically hold a larger roll of stock (up to 8" wide) and are geared for medium-volume printing.

    • Industrial label printers are designed for heavy-duty, continuous operation in warehouses, distribution centers and factories.

    • Industrial portable label printers are designed for heavy-duty operation on location. Examples of applications are labeling for electrical installations, construction sites, production floors where there are no computers.

    • RFID readers are specialized label printers that print and encode at the same time on RFID transponders (tags) enclosed in paper or printable synthetic materials. RFID tags need to have printed information for backwards compatibility with barcode systems, so humans can identify the tag.

    • Label printer applicators are designed to automate the labeling process. These systems are common in manufacturing and warehousing facilities that require cases and pallets to be labeled for shipping.

    • Label software is computer software which runs on a general-purpose personal computer, and is designed to create and/or format labels for printing. The software can use native OS printer drivers, or embed drivers in the software, bypassing the OS print subsystem. It may work with dedicated label printers as described in this article, or use sheet- or continuous-fed labels in a general-purpose computer printer.

    • Personal label printers or label makers are handheld or small desktop devices. They are intended for home office, small office, or small business use. The cost of the printers is generally very low, making them popular with low volume users; but they print on special tapes, often thermal, which are usually expensive. In the past, mechanical systems which worked by embossing a colored plastic tape, called embossing tape, were common. A hammer in the shape of the letter caused a letter-shaped extrusion on the opposite side of the tape. The raised plastic would discolor, providing visual contrast. Today, this type has been almost completely displaced by electronic thermal transfer devices with built-in keyboard and display, and an integrated cartridge containing the label material (and print ribbon, if used).

Label printer applicators

Label printer applicatorsare basic robotsthat automatically print and apply pressure-sensitive labelsto various products. Some types of labeling include shipping labeling, content labeling, graphic images, and labeling to comply with specific standards such as those of GS1 and Universal Product CodeU.P.C. A pressure-sensitive label consists of a label substrate and adhesive. First developed in the late 1970s, today there are over 70 manufacturers of these types of machines worldwide.

Packaging processes and Equipments

all products made of any materials of any nature to be used for the containment, protection, handling, delivery and preservation of goods from the producer to the user or consumer

Purposes of Packaging and Labelin

Containment
Information Transmission
Physical and Barrier Protection 
Transport 
Display

Containment 

To hold the product directly; this is PRIMARY packaging

Information Transmission

identify the brand and any related companies
explain how it should be used
warn about the hazards for misuse
reveal product contents

Physical and Barrier Protection

To prevent spoilage, leakage, breakage, moisture changes, theft and tampering

Transport

To easily and safely move the product from the manufacturer then to the retailer and finally, to the consumer

Display

To attractively display
to sell 

Basic Symbols For Transport of Packages

FRAGILE

KEEP DRY

THIS SIDE UP

DON’T USE HAND HOOL

KEEP AWY FROM SUNLIGHT

DO NOT FREEZE

DO NOT STACK

HEAVY

Types of Packages

Primary Package

Secondary Package

Tertiary Package

Primary Package

It is the material that first envelops the material and holds it

Secondary Packaging 

used to group primary packages together

Tertiary Packaging

Used for bulk handling, warehouse storage and transport shipping.
Most common is a pelletized unit load that packs tightly into containers

Packaging Process

Filling Section
Sealing Section
Labeling
End of line
Section

Filling Section and Equipments

Filling Machines
Machines used to fill bottles or a pouch depending on the product
General types of filling machines
Auger/Agitator Filling Machines
Flow filling machines
Tablet fillers

Filling Section and Equipments

Auger/Agitator filling machines
Designed to fill dry mixes, such as milk powder, sugar, flour etc.
fillers have a hopper shaped like a cone that holds the mix and puts it in a pouch using an auger screw that is controlled by the agitator

Filling Section and Equipments

Flow Filling Machines
designed for liquids, oils, and thin food products. These fillers are designed when they fill a bottle or tub that enters the machine, the ejects the open bottle back onto another conveyor for sealin

Filling Section and Equipments

Tablet Fillers
designed for products that is counted by pieces instead of weight. These are designed for small bottles, but the hopper of the filler is set up to permit scan counting of tablets or candy pieces

Sealing Section and Equipments

Sealing Machines
Machines used to securely close and/or fasten the product. Usually after the filling section
Some types of Sealing equipments.
Food Packaging Machines
Vacuum Packaging Machines
Blister Packaging Machines
Skin Pack Packaging Machines

Sealing Section and Equipments

Food Packaging Machines
machine that protects food that requires protection, tampering resistance, and special physical, chemical, or biological needs

Sealing Section and Equipments

Vacuum Packaging Machine
method of packaging that removes air from the package-long-term storage of dry foods

Sealing Section and Equipments

Blister Pack Machine
blister pack is a cavity or pocket made from a "formable" web, usually a thermoformed plastic. This usually has a backing of paperboard or a "lidding" seal of aluminum foil or plastic

Sealing Section and Equipments

Skin pack machine
product is placed on a piece of paperboard, and a thin sheet of transparent plastic is placed over the product and paperboard

Labeling Section and Equipments

Labeling
any written, electronic, or graphic communications on the packaging or on a separate but associated label
Types of Labeling Machines
a. Flat Class Labeling Machine
b. Round Bottle Labeling Machine
c. Side of the Class Labeling Machine

Labeling Section and Equipments

Flat Class Labeling Machine
to achieve the plane on the workpiece, the arc of the label and foil, such as boxes, books, plastic shell, etc., are rolling and smoking stickers

Labeling Section and Equipments

Round Bottle Labeling Machine
to achieve in cylindrical, conical circumferential surface of the product label or film, such as glass bottles, plastic bottles

Labeling Section and Equipments

Side of the Class Labeling Machine
to achieve the workpiece side of the plane, side arc label or film, such as cosmetic bottles flat, square box, can complete a round bottle cover standard equipment, while achieving a round bottle labeling

End of line Section and Equipments

End of the line section 
After individual packages have been made the next step is getting the products ready for shipment

End of line Section and Equipments

Types of Machines used
Case/Box Sealers
Sleeve Wrappers and Bundlers
Case Erectors and Box Forming Machines
Case Packers
Palletizing Equipment

End of line Section and Equipments

Case Sealers
Case Sealers are used in production environments where a run of the same sized cases is made, then changed over for the next sized box. 
Uniform Case Sealing
Random Case Sealing

End of line Section and Equipments

Sleeve Wrappers and Bundlers
an alternative to case packing where the product is bundled together for shipment

End of line Section and Equipments

Case Erectors and Box forming
machines which form a carton board blank into a carton filled with a product into single carton, after the filling, the machine engages its slots to apply adhesive and close both the ends of carton completely sealing the carton

End of line Section and Equipments

Case Packers
Case packers automatically load products into boxes. There are several types of case packing machines including horizontal, vertical, overwrapping, and robotic

End of line Section and Equipments

Palletizing Equipment
Automatic palletizers arrange boxes and bags on pallets

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